Monday, July 13, 2020

What Book Riot Contributors are Reading Today!

What Book Riot Contributors are Reading Today! In this feature at Book Riot, we give you a glimpse of what we are reading this very moment. Here is what the Rioters are reading today (as in literally today). This is what’s on their bedside table (or the floor, work bag, desk, whatevskis). See a Rioter who is reading your favorite book? I’ve included the link that will take you to their author archives (meaning, that magical place that organizes what they’ve written for the site). Gird your loins â€" this list combined with all of those archived posts will make your TBR list EXPLODE. We’ve shown you ours, now show us yours; let us know what you’re reading (right this very moment) in the comment section below! Jamie Canaves Death in D Minor (Gethsemane Brown Mysteries #2) by Alexia Gordon: Music, art, mystery, and ghosts is apparently everything I didn’t realize I needed to read right now. (egalley) The Monsters of Templeton by Lauren Groff: I loved Fates Furies and while trying to find out if Groff’s first novel was a mystery or not I discovered that a lot of Rioters loved it so automatic must-read-now for me! (ebook) The Hole by Hye-Young Pyun, Sora Kim-Russell (translation): Korean psychological horror thriller is something I can’t say no to. Nor do I want to. (egalley) Heartsick by Chelsea Cain: I am forever pissed off that her Mockingbird comic was canceled so I figured it was time to finally start reading her mystery bookswhich have been recommended to me a bazillion times. I inhaled half this book before bed (Bedtime? What bedtime?) and see why it got recommended so much. (paperback) Casey Stepaniuk Foxglove Summer by Ben Aaronovitch: Ive been trying to stretch out this series cause I dont want it to be over but I just HAD to find out what happened in the wake of the last book, so I downloaded it immediately after finishing the previous one. (Audiobook) Claire Handscombe The Vanderbeekers of 141st Street by Karina Yan Glaser: The author is one of our own contributors and I was curious to see what she had written especially with all the buzz it’s been getting. It’s great so far, fun and really well written with strong characters definitely going on the list for any presents I need to buy middle graders. (ARC) The Party  by Elizabeth Day: This book has been on lots of “must-read” lists in the UK and it sounded right my street the British establishment meets deep dark secrets at a fortieth birthday party. It’s coming to the US next month, and I begged the Little, Brown publicist for a copy and started reading straight away. It’s so good. (ARC) Who Thought This Was a Good Idea  by Alyssa Mastromonaco: I have been dying to read this White House memoir by a young, female Josh Lyman for a months but was holding firm because the ebook price was astronomical. But then it was on special offer for a day, so I went for it. Yay. (ebook) Rebecca Hussey My Heart Hemmed In by Marie NDiaye, translated by Jordan Stump: I’ve read two other NDiaye novels and have found them beautiful, rich, and strange. This one was originally published in French in 2007, and I’m excited that Two Lines Press is publishing a translation this summer. (paperback) Dear Committee Members by Julie Schumacher: I can never resist a good academic novel, and this one is epistolary, told solely through letters of recommendation. It’s an awesome concept. (hardcover) Mya Nunnally The Obelisk Gate by N.K. Jemisin: I had read The Fifth Season a while back, and just recently reread it in order to read this (its sequel) and The Stone Sky, the final book in Jemisin’s fantasy series. (paperback) The Long Way to a Small, Angry Planet by Becky Chambers: This has been on my to-be-read list for a while despite its (in my opinion) terrible cover. I love supporting self-published authors. (ebook) 11/22/63 by Stephen King: After thoroughly enjoying the Hulu adaptation, I thought I would read the novel (paperback) Liberty Hardy This Will Be My Undoing: Living at the Intersection of Black, Female, and Feminist in (White) America by Morgan Jerkins (Jan. 30, 2018, Harper Perennial): Jerkins is one of my favorite people to follow on Twitter, and I have been eagerly awaiting this collection! (e-galley) Artemis by Andy Weir (Nov. 14, Crown): *MUPPET ARMS* The author of The Martian has a new book, and so far, it’s great! (e-galley) A State of Freedom by Neel Mukherjee (Jan. 2, W.W. Norton Company): I don’t know anything about this book except someone told me it was great, so away we go! (e-galley) Vacationland: True Stories from Painful Beaches by John Hodgman (Oct. 24, Viking): Vacationland is the slogan on our license plates here in Maine, so I think I am legally required to read this. (e-galley) Alison Doherty Magic for Beginners by Kelly Link: Years ago I saw this book at Skylight Books in Los Angeles under staff recommendations. It was described as a mix between Harry Potter and Alice Munro. So far these stories are living up to that recommendation! (paperback) Girls and Sex: Navigating the New Landscape by Peggy Orenstein: Put this on hold at the library after listening to an old NPR podcast with the author. It’s interesting how, at age twenty-nine, half the time I identify with the perspective of the teen girls and half the time I identify with the adult author. (hardcover) Karina Glaser Girls Who Code by Reshma Saujani (8/22, Penguin Random House): Reshma Saujani is my hero, and I’m so excited about this book! (ARC) Secret Coders: Robots and Repeats by Gene Luen Yang and Mike Holmes (10/3, First Second): Guess I’m on a tech/coding kick! Love this series and can’t wait for this newest one to be released. (Paperback) Christina Vortia Speak of Me As I Am by Sonia Belasco: I’ve been really excited to read this book, so when I saw it available on my library Hoopla account, I jumped on it! (Audiobook) Rebecca Renner From Here to Eternity: Traveling the World to Find the Good Death by Caitlin Doughty (10/3 W. W. Norton): This book had me at the Dia de los Muertos skull on the cover, but its kept me with the amazing research Doughty uses to describe the death rituals of various world cultures. Believe it or not, this book is funny, too! (egalley) Sarah Nicolas The Hate U Give by Angie Thomas: I’m so glad I finally got to this book! The book is heartbreaking and I was so pleased to discover the audiobook is narrated by Bahni Turpin, who is incredibly talented. (audiobook) It’s Not Like It’s a Secret by Misa Sugiura: I’d heard mixed reviews on this one, but it’s a YA f/f romance and I’m here for all the sweet, sweet lady kisses! (audiobook) Given to the Sea by Mindy McGinnis: The publisher offered me a review copy of this one and I’m a sucker for women in fantasy settings escaping their inescapable fates. (audiobook review copy) The Reader by Traci Chee: I feel like I slept on this one last year and am so happy it crossed my path again. And it has another favorite narrator, Kim Mai Guest! (audiobook) Beth O’Brien Too Fat, Too Slutty, Too Loud: The Rise and Reign of the Unruly Woman by Anne Helen Peterson: I binge-listened to most of this while I was sick this week, too tired to use my eyeballs. I’ve been really enjoying the smart commentary on women in pop culture and doing some low key fist pumping. (audio) The Mother of All Questions by Rebecca Solnit: I guess I’m feeling particularly feminist this month. I’m not very far into this collection of essays, but I’m really enjoying it. I’ve already jotted down some great quotes! (paperback) The Fact of a Body: A Murder and a Memoir by Alexandria Marzano-Lesnevich: I’ve been hearing great things about this one and have been eagerly waiting for my hold to come in at the library. It’s finally here and so far it’s right up my alley. (hardcover) Jessica Yang Noteworthy by Riley Redgate: I had fun reading Seven Ways We Lie and also, despite being not at all musical, I love a cappella so I had to check this out! (hardcover) Deepali Agarwal A State of Freedom by Neel Mukherjee: Is reading this before his other, Booker Prize-nominated work a good idea? We’ll soon find out, because I found the cover blurb for this book fascinating, and could not resist. Dealing with displacement and migration, Mukherjee’s latest book promises something adjacent to Mohsin Hamid, and I will do anything to fill the giant, Exit West-shaped hole in my heart. (hardcover) Inferior by Angela Saini: I know that we live in an oppressively patriarchal world, with targeted misinformation about women seeking to keep them in their place all the time, but reading the facts and details behind the narrative that has always been spun for us hits hard. I’m reading this because I need to. (paperback) Lone Fox Dancing by Ruskin Bond: To balance out the heartache from some difficult reads, I am also reading Ruskin Bond’s autobiography, which is a beautiful mix of his experiences. Bond’s writing has a charm which makes everythingfrom love to heartbreakcharming and soothing. (hardcover) Aram Mrjoian Home Fire by Kamila Shamsie: I just got started on this novel, which I am reading to review. (ARC) Spatializing Blackness: Architectures of Confinement and Black Masculinity in Chicago by Rashad Shabazz: I am currently reading this book for a class and it’s brilliant. I highly recommend it both for people living in Chicago and across the U.S. (paperback) Sharanya Sharma Want  by Cindy Pon:  A futuristic YA about the Haves vs. the Have-nots where even clean air is a luxury you have to afford, and one boy whos willing do anything to change that. Air suits, flying cars, virtual world-hopping, kidnapping, spy games, protests, and romance â€" how could I pass that up?! Christine Ro The Intuitionist by Colson Whitehead: This book is delightfully bonkers. It’s a moody satire of race relations told through the medium ofelevator obsession. Exactly. (Paperback) Monica Friedman The Ethical Slut: a Guide to Infinite Sexual Possibilities by Dossie Easton and Catherine Liszt. If I’m going to be a slut, I want to go about it in an ethical fashion. (Paperback) The Guardian Angel of Farflung Station by Edward Hoornaert. Every month for the last year or so, I’ve met up with Ed and other members of the Science Fiction Writers America (Tucson chapter) to write quietly together for two hours. Ed gave me this book. (Paperback) Shiri Sondheimer Throne of the Crescent Moon by Saladin Ahmed: His Black Bolt run is incredible and I can’t wait for the next issue to gobble more of his words. (e-book) An Oath of Dogs by Wendy N. Wagner: Attended a live world-building panel at Emerald City Comic Con in which Wendy participated. She is hilarious and a darn-fine storyteller. (e-book) Ilana Masad Where the Past Begins by Amy Tan: I’m reading this memoir for a review and it’s mesmerizing to see how this author’s brain works (ARC) Meanwhile, Elsewhere edited by Cat Fitzpatrick and Casey Plett: This is an incredible anthology I’m also reading for a review, and it’s all speculative fiction by trans writers. I’m in love! (ARC) Katie McLain The Pale Blue Eye  by  Louis Bayard: I’ve had this one on my list for a while dark historical mystery featuring a young Edgar Allan Poe but honestly, the reason why I’m reading it now was because all the mystery/suspense audiobooks I REALLY wanted to listen to were all downloaded already from my library. (digital audiobook) Black Dahlia, Red Rose: The Crime, Corruption, and Cover-Up of America’s Greatest Unsolved Murder by Piu Eatwell (Liveright, October 10, 2017): I’ve been on a historical true crime kick lately, and surprisingly, I haven’t read much about the Black Dahlia. (ARC) Kathleen Keenan The Vegetarian by Han Kang: This book has received rave reviews literally everywhere, and a copy finally came in at my library. (paperback) Kate Krug Warcross by Marie Lu: Because every single one of the book bloggers I follow have given this RAVE reviews and I had to get in on the action. And I’m all for a bad ass Asian hacker heroine. (ARC) Wicked Like a Wildfire by Lana Popovic: First, the cover is gorge. Second, a dark, magical fantasy. Third, Eastern European characterswhich I do not read a lot about. (ARC) Steph Auteri The Fact of a Body by Alexandria Marzano-Lesnevich: I was intrigued by the premise of this book, a memoir by a woman who thought herself staunchly against the death penalty, but whose beliefs are shaken when a particular murder case reveals parallels with her own past. (Ebook) The Willpower Instinct by Kelly McGonigal: I’m actually reading this one at the suggestion of a pair of ghostwriting clients, as the contents informed their own writing. But heck, I could certainly use more willpower, so this is turning into a self-helpy read, too. (Hardcover) Push by Sapphire: Because I’ve only ever seen the movie. (Paperback) Jessica Plummer He’s Got Rhythm: The Life and Career of Gene Kelly by Cynthia Brideson and Sara Brideson: I love Kelly, but I’m struggling a bit with the authors’ rose-tinted perspective on him and some oddly dated and homophobic framing. (ARC) A Confusion of Princes by Garth Nix: This has been sitting on my TBR pile for literal years and I finally dusted it off and cracked into it. It’s slow going so far, but I’ve loved Nix’s work in the past so I’m hoping it’ll pick up. (Hardcover) Derek Attig Don’t Call Us Dead: Poems by Danez Smith: Smith is known for writing poetry that grapples with police violence and white supremacy, and this incredible collection continues that aesthetically and politically crucial work. You should pre-order a copy right now. (ARC) Artemis by Andy Weir: I enjoyed The Martian, so I jumped at this. (ARC) Kate Scott We Love You, Charlie Freeman by Kaitlyn Greenidge: This has been on my TBR list since last year. I love stories that have to do with science and animal cognition and this one checks those boxes. (Library Hardcover) The Complete Enneagram by Beatrice Chestnut: I love learning about the Enneagram and this book focuses on the instinctual subtypes, which is not an aspect of the Enneagram that I am very familiar with. (Library Paperback) In a Sunburned Country by Bill Bryson: I listened to two Bill Bryson audiobooks last year and loved both, so I’m giving this one a try. (Audiobook) The Wicked Boy by Kate Summerscale: This is on my TBR list from last year. I’m in the mood for true crime and this sounds like a particularly interesting case. (Library Hardcover) Tasha Brandstatter When Dimple Met Rishi by Sandhya Menon: Noticed this was available on Hoopla and thought, why not? Moon Over the Mediterranean by Sheri Cobb South: I love South’s John Pickett mysteries series, and this book was described as an homage to Mary Stewart, one of my favorite writers. Dana Staves Thanks, Obama:  My Hopey, Changey White House Years by David Litt:  Fresh out of college, David Litt landed a job as one of the speechwriters for the Obama White House, and this book is his story of his time working for the administration. Part humorous political memoir, part wistful look back at a gentler time, all tinged with Litt’s self-deprecating humor and the hindsight that comes from post-Obama life. (ARC, Ecco, September 19, 2017) Adiba Jaigirdar A Wrinkle In Time by Madeleine L’Engle: I saw the trailer for the new movie. Loved it. Realised that I had somehow never read the book. I had to rectify that immediately. (ebook) Margaret Kingsbury The Refrigerator Monologues by Catherynne M. Valente: Because she’s my favorite author and is AMAZING! (Hardcover) When the English Fall by David Williams. I enjoy a good apocalypse novel, and this one seems unique as it centers on the perspective of an Amish farmer. (Egalley) Rabeea Saleem Madness Is Better Than Defeat  by Ned Beauman: I love eccentric plotlines so this madcap romp through a lost Mayan temple in the jungles of Honduras seems to be right up my alley. It also features a rogue CIA agent! (Paperback). Priya Sridhar Miami Beach by Howard Kleinberg: I’m reading this as research for a novella. Before Miami Beach was a party city, it was marshy area ripe for opportunity. Black and white photographs capture the century it took to make such a place. (Hardcover) Megan Cavitt The Cuckoo’s Calling by Robert Galbraith: This book has been out for so long that I found a copy for a dollar at a library sale. Let’s call that fate. (Paperback) Black Jack, vol. 1 by Osamu Tezuka: Oh, Tezuka, godfather of Japanese comics! When he’s good, he’s real good. When he’s bad, he’s real bad. I’m not yet certain where this pseudo-medical drama about a Holmes-esque doctor falls on the spectrum. (Library Hardcover) Emma Allmann The Complete Poems of Emily Dickinson by Emily Dickinson: I just really love Emily Dickinson and haven’t had a chance to spend a lot time with her poems in the last few years so I’m officially revisiting her. I do love that I can look at the notes I’ve made in my copy and see what I’m noticing now versus when I last read it! (Paperback) Angel Cruz American Panda by Gloria Chao: When I first heard about this book, I may have screamed a little bit from sheer delight. Mei is so relatable and very much like me when I was younger, and I’m so excited to see how her story unfolds. (e-galley) A Wrinkle in Time by Madeleine L’Engle: This is one of those books I tried to read as a kid, but just could not get into for some reason. Trying it now as an adult, I’ve gotten halfway through after a few nights of reading some pages at bedtime, and I’m definitely enjoying it more. (Paperback) Right of First Refusal by Dahlia Adler: I really liked the first Adler book I readJust Visitingand have been meaning to circle back to her past work for ages. I’m only a few chapters in, but am already very intrigued by Mase and Cait’s shared history. (e-book) The Perilous Life of Jade Yeo by Zen Cho: I was so pleased when I saw this mentioned in a previous Book Riot Deals post, as I loved Cho’s Sorcerer to the Crown. I’ve just started reading, but I love Cho’s writing style and am excited to see where the story takes me. (e-book) Cecilia Lyra Pedal by Chelsea Rooney: As a member of the International Festival of Authors book club, I am lucky enough to meet not only with fellow bookworms, but also with a rotating list of great authors who pick the books and lead the discussion. This month, the inimitable Zoe Whittall chose Pedal. The novel tells the story of Julia Hoop, a 25-five-year-old psychology graduate student who is exploring the subject of pedophilia from an unorthodox angle: Julia interviews women who dont feel traumatized by the sexual molestation they experienced as children. To say that this is an emotionally challenging read would be the understatement of the decade and do keep in mind that, being on Twitter, I cannot escape some very disturbing reads (cough-Trump-cough). So far, my favorite thing about this novel is reading about the great Canadian landscape as Julia rides her bicycle on a cross-country journey, from Vancouver to Toronto. (e-book) The Unseen World by Liz Moore: This was also a book club selection. It tells the story of Ada, who, as a child, learns that her brilliant, enigmatic computer-scientist father is suffering from early onset Alzheimers disease. This is not a light read by any means, but compared to Pedal it is like eating a jellybean dipped in frosting. A warm thanks to The Girly Book Club for picking it as our July book. (e-book) Tracy Shapley The Nix by Nathan Hill. Thanks to the folks at Just the Right Book!, (the exclamation point is theirs, not mine) I’m finally getting around to reading the book everyone was reading last year. I’m only about 40 pages in but am already in love. This is very good timing because the last few books I’ve read have been real snoozers. (Paperback) Jaime Herndon After Kathy Acker by Chris Kraus. Acker’s writing was gutsy and daring, and Kraus is a trailblazer in her own right (hello, I Love Dick). This perfect pairing for a biography is really good so far, and provides what feels like an insider’s glimpse of Acker’s life. (ARC) Motherest by Kristen Iskandrian. A novel about parenthood, becoming a parent, and everything that goes along with that. I just started it, but really liking it so far. (ARC) The Worrier’s Guide to the End of the World by Torre DeRoche. Sort of like the anti-Eat Pray Love, it’s a travel memoir taking place in Italy and India. When Torre meets a fellow traveler, Masha, they decide to travel together for a bit and this is their story. (ARC)

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Suicide in Prisons - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1224 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2019/07/01 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Suicide Essay Did you like this example? Many of the Scholarly articles Ive found have a plethora of similarities. These similarities include Risk factors that make inmate more prone to committing suicide, Methods of how said inmates commit or attempted to commit suicide, and specific policys implemented to help mitigate this growing issue. Finally I found a qualitative study to help understand prison suicide out of Oregon to include six of their correction facilities and a mixed qualitative quantitative following women in the United Kingdom. Every single study I have researched has had a multitude of similar risk factors that make inmates prone to taking their own life. White, younger, males with no kids that come from lower SES backgrounds are more prone to suicidal tendencies. The general consensus on age varied throughout different studies but all ranged from 25 to 35 years old. However, one study did touch on individuals who were outside of that age bracket. They stated that inmates younger than 21 years of age, ones that should be placed in juvenile detention centers, placed in adult facilities where 8 times more likely to kill themselves. The reasoning for such an overwhelming amount of result from white men has been associated to their lack of being ready for the prison experience. Some researchers suggest that the differences among black, white, and Hispanic suicide rates can be explained by sociocultural factors such as better preparation for prison life by blacks as opposed to that of whites and Hispanics. (Da niel, 2006) As a result of these factors these individuals have and will continue to take part in deviant behaviors. A study that was taken from 313 inmates in a Florida Federal Institution, there was a positive correlation between antisocial deviance and suicidal tendencies of man inmates. (Daniel, 2006, p.167) These antisocial tendencies have a lot of can result in more risk factors that push inmates to suicidal thoughts. Bullying from peers has been proven to by many scholars as another direct correlation to suicide. According to Konrad, Suicidal inmates experience bullying from peers, write ups, or adverse information. (2004, p. 115) The risk factors mentioned above all revolve around social interactions or are caused because of them. There are some other risk factors that stem from within the inmates family or chemical make-up. These can be defined as Clinical factors, mental illness, and substance abuse issues. According to Emma Barker, personal and family history of psychiat ric problems, and dysfunctional family lives including parental substance abuse and violence can be a leading cause for inmates attempts at suicide or suicide. (2014) Even though most of the studies have the same rational reasoning as to why inmates commit these atrocitys, there was one study that touched on an uncharted reason. Ildiko Suto1 and Genevieve L. Y. Arnaut brought to the attention of the public inmates depression. Some inmates who made suicide attempts did so because they felt they dishonored their families, that they made their parents look bad. This normally wouldnt affect most inmates when it comes to other infractions or issues in prison, but to these inmates they were upset that it casts a negative shadow on their parental upbringing. As a result of a multitude of different reasons as to why inmates decide to take their own lifes or try, the method of how they do it is very similar across the board. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Suicide in Prisons" essay for you Create order Methods of suicide inside institutions are very limited in comparison to the outside world. As a result of constant supervision, random searches, CCTVs inmates have limited there methods to hangings, overdoses, and self-mutilations. Some researchers say that hangings are the leading cause of methods in prisoners suicide, Over 80 percent of suicides are completed by hanging. (Daniel, 2006) There are many ways an inmate can get away with this method as ways of asphyxiation. The use of bed sheets, shoelaces, belts or anything that can be used to cut of circulation are easily accusable by everyone. The timing of these incidents tends to happen during low traffic times. Because they are inside an institution they are under close supervision, as a way around that some say that imamates will hang themselves at night, during shift changes, or once put into isolation. According to Bonner, most of the suicides by hanging happen within the first 24 hours of arrest. This brings conflict to the m ajority of other studies that say this is most prevalent during times of isolation. When one is brought into intake, they are surround by many people which nullifies the idea that hangings happen in isolation. Some have said though the idea of isolation does not have to be taken literally but can be a result of ones mental state. As hanging being the most attempted and used practice in regards to suicide, the next highest killer is overdosing. This idea of overdosing refers to illegal narcotics smuggled into the institution or inmates prescribed psychotropic drugs. As a result of these methods Institution staff, social scientists and many others have come up with policies to help combat this ongoing issue. Many policies begin and end at inmate intake. Intake screening usually consisted of a non-medically trained staff asking probing questions. They are asked to either figure out an inmates prior history whether that mental or family history or to see if the inmate is currently high risk. Generally, screening questionnaires should ask for static (historical demographic) as well as dynamic (situational and personal) variables. ( Konrad, 2007) During screening if its deemed that inmate is suicidal they must be seen by mental health staff. Staff shouldnt stop once the initial intake has taken place. Staff need to follow up with inmates later on as suicidal tendency can go unobserved and created after intake. This to include routine checks, conversations, social interventions. As these are all good ideas, most institutions do not follow up with them. This could be attributed to lack of funding, personal, or they just do not think it is as important as others. Ronald Bonner brought up an older suicide prevention plan, SSP, from the New York Local Forensic Crisis Service Models Suicide Prevention Screening Instrument. This program took it further than prisoner intake. In conjunction, they added a level system to help officials observe high risk inmates differently, bridged the gap between correction officers and mental health providers, and made it mandatory for the whole correctional organization to be Profant in and knowledge off all these resources through a required eight-hour course. Bonner stated that a commonality across many intuitions SPPs was, The responsibility of all correctional staff in suicide prevention with training being considered the primary vehicle of program implementation. (p. 373) In 1986, the Galveston county jail, used a SPP that was similar in the fact that new inmates were screen prior to being put into gen pop, but where they different from the rest. During high risk times for these inmates they would avidly watch them three days before and after court hearings, as well and providing the inmates with more human contacts to not further isolate them. Also they implanted Trained inmates to keep an eye on these high risk s ubjects when officers werent available or wanted. In conjunction with the pervious policies, at Cook county Department of Corrections, they implanted a new SSP that reduced suicide rates to less than 2 inmates per 100,000. This SSP help connects these higher risk inmates to community hospitals for further mental treatment that the institution couldnt provide. (Barker, 2014)

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

How Undergraduate College Women in the United States...

Background: The rates of casual sexual encounters, ‘hook-ups’, and casual relationships are on the rise in young adults in North America. The majority of US college students have engaged in at least one hook-up while over half report that they have also engaged in some type of casual sex. However, the situations in which students experience unwanted sexual encounters are also shifting. It is implied that since the rates of date rape have decreased, yet rates of sexual assault have remained the same, that sexual assault and rape rates during casual sexual encounters are on the rise. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate how undergraduate college women in the United States perceive rape and sexual assault as a potential threat of engaging in random hook-ups or casual sex. Setting: A large southeastern university in the United States. Subjects: The subjects consisted of 109 female undergraduate students who were recruited from the psychology department participant pool. Women were between 18 and 46 years of age, with a mean age of 22.6 years. Participants were split between grade level with 6.4% freshman, 18.3% sophomores, 37.6% juniors, and 36.7% seniors. In terms of ethnicity the women were 54% European American, 19% Latina, 21% African American, 1% Asian American, 2% as multi-ethnic, 1% Native American, and 2% did not indicate ethnicity. Methods: The women were split into small groups of no more than four and seated behind a privacy screen to ensureShow MoreRelatedSexual Assault On Campus : Opposing Viewpoints Essay1180 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction to Sexual Assault on Campus: Opposing Viewpoints. Sexual Assault on Campus. Ed. Jack Lasky. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press, 2016. Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 17 Oct. 2016. The article introduces sexual assault to readers as a problem that is in line with other forms of violence such as domestic violence, dating violence and stalking. It gives a figure of 19% undergraduate women who have reported a complete or attempted sexual assault while in campusRead MoreSexual Coercion: Abuse and Perceptions Essay2016 Words   |  9 PagesHistory of Abuse Predicting Current Experiences and Perceptions of Sexual Coercionâ€Æ' Sexual aggression among college students has been a popular topic of examination for the past three decades. One of the reasons for the repeated analysis is the fact that sexual aggression remains a common and enduring experience among college students. An early survey on this topic found that 54% of college women reported experiencing some sort of sexual victimization (Koss, Gidycz, Wisniewski, 1987). That same yearRead MoreViews Of Contraception On The College Scene Essay1852 Words   |  8 PagesContraception in the College Scene College is the scene most known for hookups and partying. Here is where you meet new people, make new friends, and have sexual encounters that you may not ever have to see or deal with again. But despite the enticing environment this may seem, there are multiple factors that may be a result of hook ups and partying. One of these factors is unwanted pregnancy among college students. In this paper I will discuss the views of contraception between the college scene and theRead MoreEpekto Ng Polusyon19213 Words   |  77 PagesDomestic violence: Moving On A Qualitative Investigation Exploring How women Move On From Violent Relationships Researcher: Carole Le Darcy Supervisor: Dr Sue Becker Acknowledgements I would like to express my sincerest thanks and gratitude to all of the exceptionally strong women that participated in this research that have freely given not only some of their precious and valuable time but have also revealed that which is sadly all too often concealed; the remarkable, courageous and oftenRead MoreHsm 542 Week 12 Discussion Essay45410 Words   |  182 PagesIntentional Torts in Healthcare (graded) | Most Pressing Ethical Issues (graded) | Q A Forum (not graded) | | Intentional Torts in Healthcare (graded) | Select one of the intentional torts discussed in your text and provide an example of how this tort takes place in healthcare. As leader of your own healthcare facility, what steps could you take and what processes could you implement to reduce the risk of this tort occurring in your own facility? | This section lists options that can

The Free Soil Party Free Essays

Buchanan30. In 1848, the Free Soil party platform advocated all of the following except [A] free government homesteads for settlers. [B] internal improvements. We will write a custom essay sample on The Free Soil Party or any similar topic only for you Order Now [C] an end to slavery in the District of Columbia. [D] support of the Wilmot Proviso. [E] opposition to slavery in the territories. 31. According to the principle of â€Å"popular sovereignty,† the question of slavery in the territories would be determined by [A] the most popular national leaders. [B] a Supreme Court decision. [C] congressional legislation. [D] the vote of the people in any given territory. [E] a national referendum. 2. The key issue for the major parties in the 1848 presidential election was [A] expansion. [B] personalities. [C] Indian removal. [D] slavery. [E] the economy. 33. The Free Soilers condemned slavery because [A] of moral principles. [B] it damaged the national economy. [C] of the harm it did to blacks. [D] it destroyed the chances of free white workers to rise to self-employment. [E] it was the only way they had of combating the appeal of the Democratic party. 34. Harriet Tubman gained fame [A] as an African-American antislavery novelist. [B] in the gold fields of California. C] by urging white women to oppose slavery. [D] as an advocate of the Fugitive Slave Law. [E] by helping slaves to escape to Canada. 35. Daniel Webster’s famed Seventh of March speech in 1850 resulted in [A] a shift toward compromise in the North. [B] Senate rejection of a fugitive-slave law. [C] a movement to draft him for the presidency. [D] condemnation by northern commercial interests. [E] charges of accepting bribes. 36. In the debates of 1850, Senator William H. Seward, as a representative of the northern Young Guard, argued that [A] John C . Calhoun’s compromise plan must be adopted to preserve the Union. [B] Christian legislators must obey God’s moral law. [C] the Constitution must be obeyed. [D] compromise must be achieved to preserve the Union. [E] African-Americans should be granted their own territory. 37. In the Compromise of 1850, Congress determined that slavery in the New Mexico and Utah territories was [A] to be decided by popular sovereignty. [B] to be banned. [C] protected by federal law. [D] to be ignored until either territory applied for admission to statehood. E] to be decided by the Mormon Church. 38. The Fugitive Slave Law included all of the following provisions except [A] denial of fleeing slaves’ right to testify on their own behalf. [B] denial of a jury trial to runaway slaves. [C] a higher payment if officials determined blacks to be runaways. [D] the requirement that fugitive slaves be returned from Canada. [E] the penalty of imprisonment for northerners who helped slaves to escape. 39. The election of 1852 was significant because it [A] saw the rise of purely national parties. [B] saw the victory of a pro-South northerner. C] marked the return of issues-oriented campaigning. [D] saw the emergence of an antislavery third party. [E] marked the end of the Whig party. 40. The prime objective of Manifest Destiny in the 1850s was [A] Nicaragua. [B] Panama. [C] Hawaii. [D] Cuba. [E] the Dominican Republic. 41. The prime objective of Manifest Destiny in th e 1850s was [A] Nicaragua. [B] Panama. [C] Hawaii. [D] Cuba. [E] the Dominican Republic. 42. Stephen A. Douglas’s plans for deciding the slavery question in the Kansas-Nebraska scheme required repeal of the [A] Northwest Ordinance. [B] Missouri Compromise. C] Compromise of 1850. [D] Fugitive Slave Act. [E] Wilmot Proviso. 43. One of Stephen Douglas’s mistakes in proposing the Kansas-Nebraska Act was [A] allowing slavery to spread into new territory. [B] underestimating the depth of northern opposition to the spread of slavery. [C] believing that slavery could not survive in Kansas. [D] overestimating the protest to the bill. [E] not securing the transcontinental railroad for the North. 44. The clash between Preston S. Brooks and Charles Sumner revealed [A] the division between the House and the Senate over slavery. B] the fact that, despite divisions over slavery, the House of Representatives would unite to expel a member for bad conduct. [C] the seriousness of political divisions in the North. [D] the fact that passion s over slavery were becoming dangerously inflamed in both North and South. [E] the importance of honor to northerners. 45. Match each candidate in the 1856 election below with the correct party. ___ A. John C. Fremont ___ B. Millard Fillmore ___ C. Martin Van Buren ___ D. James Buchanan 1. Democratic 2. Republican 3. Know-Nothing [A] A-2, B-3, D-1 [B] A-3, C-1, D-2 C] A-1, B-3, C-2 [D] B-1, C-2, D-3 [E] A-2, B-3, C-1 46. In ruling on the Dred Scott case, the United States Supreme Court [A] held that slaveowners could not take slaves into free territories. [B] expected to lay to rest the issue of slavery in the territories. [C] hoped to stimulate further debate on the slavery issue. [D] supported the concept of popular sovereignty. [E] reunited the Democratic party. 47. The political career of Abraham Lincoln could best be described as [A] marred by early political opportunism. [B] hurt by the Kansas-Nebraska Act. [C] hurt by his marriage. D] characterized by a rapid rise to power. [E] slow to get off the ground. 48. As a result of the Lincoln-Douglas debates, [A] Lincoln’s national stature was diminished. [B] Lincoln was elected to the Senate. [C] Douglas defeated Lincoln for the Senate. [D] Illinois rejected the concept of popular sovereignty. [E] Douglas increased his chances of winning the presidency. 49. Match each presidential candidate in the 1860 election below with his party’s position on the slavery question. ___ A. Abraham Lincoln ___ B. Stephen Douglas ___ C. John Breckenridge ___ D. John Bell 1. xtend slavery into the territories 2. ban slavery from the territories 3. preserve the Union by compromise 4. enforce popular sovereignty [A] A-3, B-2, C-1, D-4 [B] A-3, B-4, C-1, D-2 [C] A-2, B-1, C-4, D-3 [D] A-4, B-3, C-2, D-1 [E] A-2, B-4, C-1, D-3 50. When Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 presidential election, people in South Carolina [A] waited to see how other southern states would act. [B] vowed to give their loyalty to Stephen Douglas. [C] were very upset because they would have to secede from the Union. [D] rejoiced because it gave them an excuse to secede. [E] none of these. How to cite The Free Soil Party, Papers

Thursday, April 23, 2020

The Missing Evening Essay Example For Students

The Missing Evening Essay He was always punctual, at least for his own agenda. Each evening Jim would run through the forest just for fun. This summer night was no exception. The night had grown dark but he was not worried, for he knew the woods well. He sped across an old beaten path and glided over rotten old fallen trees. The damp air was wonderful, he thought, because he could run and never get too hot, and if he kept running he’d never get too cold. This forest was made mostly of pine trees, and the needles put a bounce in the young boy’s step and kept him cheerful. At the clearing he stopped, as he always did, and rested upon a large rock and observed the inky-black sky. This was his favorite spot, his secret spot. Stars shined far brighter here then they did in town, and Jim always felt like he could stay forever. He sighed, and pulled his arms behind his head and stretched out his legs. For some reason this night he was especially relaxed. Either school letting out last week or just one of those giddy days, he didn’t know. It is a wonderful day to be alive. After looking into the sky for a few minutes he saw a falling star. It shimmered for merely a moment and went out. Then another came, and another, and after a dozen or so he sat up and beamed, awed by the glowing sky. It seemed that just above him there was a whole meteor shower, purely for his delight. They fell straight down and glowed longer then Jim had ever seen before. Soon the whole clearing was shining a bright white, like on Forth of July. The dozens became hundreds until finally a large radiant circle seemed to be coming straight down above Jim. He let out a sharp little scream of excitement and sprang from the rock, twirling around and around singing to himself as he always did when he was really cheerful. It was another minute before he realized that they weren’t meteors anymore, but actually the colorful bottom of a spaceship. He stepped back slowly, alert but unafraid. Slowly the craf t hovered toward the widest part of the clearing and fell to the earth. Jim stood erect now, excited or scared he didn’t know, but he was going to know which it was before he did anything. He decided it must be excitement. â€Å"And anyway, I couldn’t just leave.† He told himself. The intense light faded away, and by moonlight Jim walked around the small spaceship. The wings of the craft were torn up. Wires leaped forth from the tears and melted plastic had oozed out and hardened, creating an elliptical half baked purple pancake covering the craft’s exterior. The black tinted windows had small cracks throughout. The only orifice was a small door underneath the ship. Jim bent his knees, ducked his head and tugged at the door. He yanked hard and ended up falling onto the moist earth. The door had opened, and a plume of powder emerged blanketing the boy with grey dust. After rubbing his eyes and brushing his pants off as was his habit, he stood once again, p oked his head into the ship and peered about the hull. The air was still filled with more gray dust, and Jim couldn’t make out a thing. He pushed himself up into the ship despite the discomfort of the dust and explored. Everything was smooth: the walls, the floor, the door, everything. Jim felt the wall until he came to another small door. Pushing it aside, he stepped into this dark room. It was damp and terribly musty. A faint tussling sound moved toward Jim. Still undaunted, the young boy flung his arms in front of himself and crawled blindly toward the queer sound. â€Å"Ah!† Jim clung into his hand and screamed. Something had bitten his arm. He rubbed his hand but it was no use. Jim whimpered, he’s whole left arm now throbbing. He pitched on the hard cold floor until he faintly made out the opening from where he had entered this pitch-dark appalling room. As he put forth his head through the door, something clutched his feet and plucked him back into the shi p. Skidding through room after room, Jim finally found a latter-like object and nabbed unto one of the rungs. He kicked his feet hysterically and broke free momentarily, but something thrashed around his legs once more, pulling him harder and hastily now. Jim grunted. Finally his fingers let go, and he was pulled deeper and deeper into the strange musty ship, his whole left torso tingling, and his legs bleeding tremendously â€Å"No, no, oh please!† His eyes were wide, and blood spat from his mouth. The boy became so nauseated he was about to blow chunks when, almost in slow motion, Jim felt as if he was lifted into the air. He felt weightless and benumbed. He remembered this feeling when he had ridden the Pirate Ship at the carnival. It was a most stupendous experience. Air whooshed by and his ears buzzed with static. Then suddenly it all went away, and everything became silent. He grabbed at his leg and felt for the thing that had grasped him. Nothing was present any longer , but he could feel his leg gushing with blood. There was no light, and the musty air had cleared up. â€Å"Is anyone there?† he asked in a doubtful shaky voice. Clicks and pings stuttered all around the young boy, tensing and terrorizing his every muscle. All the comforts he had cherished to help him during his nightmares were gone. The stars weren’t there to look out for him. The distant lights of town no long reached him. His mother couldn’t hear him if he screamed. He felt faint. His eyes were about to flicker close when finally there was light. It came from now where, yet everywhere. The room was shaped like the inside of a Skittle. He sat in the middle of the room in a pool of his own blood. His leg looked terrible, but the tingling from his torso had now traveled to every corner of his body. A strange peace came over him. Just like at the dentist. There wasn’t any mark on the walls, no door, no actual lights. Just a little boy sitting in a dark-red puddle in a dull brown room. â€Å"He.. Hello?† Jim called halfheartedly. The clicks and pings grew louder, and Jim clasped his hands to his head until the sounds faded away. Then the light faded, and Jim almost instantly fell asleep. .ub173b6ab7ab1346d9057168b4b182ed2 , .ub173b6ab7ab1346d9057168b4b182ed2 .postImageUrl , .ub173b6ab7ab1346d9057168b4b182ed2 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ub173b6ab7ab1346d9057168b4b182ed2 , .ub173b6ab7ab1346d9057168b4b182ed2:hover , .ub173b6ab7ab1346d9057168b4b182ed2:visited , .ub173b6ab7ab1346d9057168b4b182ed2:active { border:0!important; } .ub173b6ab7ab1346d9057168b4b182ed2 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ub173b6ab7ab1346d9057168b4b182ed2 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ub173b6ab7ab1346d9057168b4b182ed2:active , .ub173b6ab7ab1346d9057168b4b182ed2:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ub173b6ab7ab1346d9057168b4b182ed2 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ub173b6ab7ab1346d9057168b4b182ed2 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ub173b6ab7ab1346d9057168b4b182ed2 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ub173b6ab7ab1346d9057168b4b182ed2 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ub173b6ab7ab1346d9057168b4b182ed2:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ub173b6ab7ab1346d9057168b4b182ed2 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ub173b6ab7ab1346d9057168b4b182ed2 .ub173b6ab7ab1346d9057168b4b182ed2-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ub173b6ab7ab1346d9057168b4b182ed2:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Unredeemed Captive Essay We will write a custom essay on The Missing Evening specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now He awoke with his eyes closed. His eyelids were bright red with hundreds of fuzzy little veins running through them. Jim heard people talking, but couldn’t understand what they were saying. â€Å"Where am I?! Hello! Why can’t I see?† Jim blurted out, half crying. The voices stopped and footsteps on hollow medal doors filled the air. A hiss came from beneath the table or whatever it was Jim was on. His eyes felt extremely sore, but he slowly opened them. At first there was only white light everywhere, but that faded away and Jim now could see the whole area. There were tables everywhere, each with a human on it. A thin transparent green ooze covered all the surfaces. There was no ceiling, but just a never-ending dull light. Faint clicks and pings played in his ears, and he was sure if he heard them or only remembered them. Jim heard people calling out, screaming for help. He grasped the side of the table and closed his eyes. Please, just let this go away. Oh please don’t be real. Minutes passed, and the calls for help turned to wordless screams, then to occasional murmurs. Jim finally opened his eyes. A beast stood before him. The first thing Jim noticed was the slime that covered its body, oozing from all its apertures, dripping everywhere. It was a dark maroon, and humanoid. Its arms however where long and broke into three tentacles. Its face was almost identical to that of some persons, but the eyes were slanted downward towards the nose. Its feet were also just two thick tentacles, and they moved like our legs would in a bean-sack. Its breathing was hissy, and terribly unnerving. It lurched towards Jim, and starred at him with dull slimy white eyes. Jim tried to pull away but he couldn’t move. Thick goo covered all of his body except for his eyes and mouth. â€Å"Get away! Stay away from me!† The sound of Jim’s voice drove the creature to walk faster. Other humans looked on helplessly. â€Å"Leave him alone, don’t hurt him! He ’s only a child!† they cried, but to no avail. It raised its arms onto the table and started to pull the goo straps away. Jim was frightened, and started to shiver. His arms convulsed wildly, his legs jerking to and fro. The creature was startled by his sudden movements and backed away. Now only Jim’s left hand was trapped and quickly he pulled the goo off and flung himself to the ground. His feet couldn’t hold him and he fell onto the slime covered floor with a deafening thud. His leg throbbed. The beast moved around the table slowly, always keeping Jim in his sight. More beasts came from out of the dark areas beyond Jim’s sight and slowly crept toward his position. People screamed as the creatures passed their sides. Other cried, and still others just sat there praying, waiting for death to come. Jim stood and leveled himself. He stepped back slowly, and blundered back into a middle-aged woman. â€Å"Safe me kiddo, come on. Just tear this stuff o ff of me, and we can get out of here together!† She was white and sickly, as if all of her blood had been drained except for her blood-shot eyes. Skin hung from her cheeks and eye sockets. She looked almost like a old shaven poodle. The sight of her scared Jim more than even the creatures had. He ran done isles of weeping people, carefully moving to keep away from the monsters. People called to him savagely. Some were speaking languages Jim had only heard on television. He ran past dozens of rows of people bellowing out to him, but he didn’t stop. Now almost twenty of the creatures followed him, and more still came. Jim turned down an corridor then looked back at where he had come from. The screaming had stopped, but the people were there. Why were they so quiet now? Jim grabbed the side of a table and wrenched forward, but slipped on the slime smacking his head onto the floor. Everything spun around him. He crumbled himself into a ball, put his hands in-between his leg s and cried. The slime seeped through his thin pants and entered his wounds. Jim bit his lip and made tight fists. He felt something on his left wrist, and pulled his hand out and opened it. He wiped his eyes with his shoulder and looked down. He saw a small round object. It looked like a black pin, but much thicker. The creatures were close now. The sound of their breathing was all Jim could hear. The young boy pulled on the object and cried out in pain. He looked at his hand and saw blood spluttering out of his wrist at an alarming rate. The beasts looked at him, starring into his eyes, slowly creeping towards him. Steamy moistened air covered the little boy’s body. The sound was enfeebling. Jim’s ears filled with clicking and high-pitched pings that got louder and louder. Then everything faded away. No more sound, no more light, no more slime, no pain. .u3249e68a4c0383569ef6d939eda9d2d7 , .u3249e68a4c0383569ef6d939eda9d2d7 .postImageUrl , .u3249e68a4c0383569ef6d939eda9d2d7 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u3249e68a4c0383569ef6d939eda9d2d7 , .u3249e68a4c0383569ef6d939eda9d2d7:hover , .u3249e68a4c0383569ef6d939eda9d2d7:visited , .u3249e68a4c0383569ef6d939eda9d2d7:active { border:0!important; } .u3249e68a4c0383569ef6d939eda9d2d7 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u3249e68a4c0383569ef6d939eda9d2d7 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u3249e68a4c0383569ef6d939eda9d2d7:active , .u3249e68a4c0383569ef6d939eda9d2d7:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u3249e68a4c0383569ef6d939eda9d2d7 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u3249e68a4c0383569ef6d939eda9d2d7 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u3249e68a4c0383569ef6d939eda9d2d7 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u3249e68a4c0383569ef6d939eda9d2d7 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u3249e68a4c0383569ef6d939eda9d2d7:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u3249e68a4c0383569ef6d939eda9d2d7 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u3249e68a4c0383569ef6d939eda9d2d7 .u3249e68a4c0383569ef6d939eda9d2d7-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u3249e68a4c0383569ef6d939eda9d2d7:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: A Loyalist And His Life EssayJim leaned just a few feet to far to one side of his rock and tumbled onto the ground. He was shaking with fear. The ground was damp and cool. His head throbbed. Slowly the young boy opened his eyes and looked up. There were the stars. Millions of his stars, the stars he had always seen every night. He rose and tried to remember when he had fallen asleep. Of course I don’t remember. Jim pushed himself up on the rock and brushed off his pants as was habit and looked down upon town. There is the corner market, and there is the hardware store. There’s the gas station. Jim wasn’t scared at all. He smiled and stood up, and began to jog further down the old beaten path, which made a round-about back to home. What silly dreams I have. Jim laughed at himself. Education

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Biography of Napoleon Bonaparte, Military Commander

Biography of Napoleon Bonaparte, Military Commander Napoleon Bonaparte (August 15, 1769–May 5, 1821), one of the greatest military commanders in history, was the twice-emperor of France whose military endeavors and sheer personality dominated Europe for a decade. In military affairs, legal issues, economics, politics, technology, culture, and society in general, his actions influenced the course of European history for over a century, and some argue, to this very day. Fast Facts: Napoleon Bonaparte Known For: Emperor of France, conqueror of much of EuropeAlso Known As: Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, Napoleon 1st of France, The Little Corporal, The CorsicanBorn: August 15, 1769 in Ajaccio, CorsicaParents: Carlo Buonaparte, Letizia RamolinoDied: May 5, 1821 on Saint Helena, United KingdomPublished Works: Le souper de Beaucaire (Supper at Beaucaire), a pro-republican pamphlet (1793); the Napoleonic Code, the French civil code (1804); authorized the publication of Description de lÉgypte, a multivolume work authored by dozens of scholars detailing Egypts archeology, topography, and natural history (1809-1821)Awards and Honors: Founder and grand master of the Legion of Honor (1802), the Order of the Iron Crown (1805), the Order of the Reunion (1811)Spouse(s): Josephine de Beauharnais (m. March 8, 1796–Jan. 10, 1810), Marie-Louise (m. April 2, 1810–May 5, 1821)Children: Napoleon IINotable Quote: Great ambition is the passion of a great character. Those endowed with it m ay perform very good or very bad acts. All depends on the principles which direct them. Early Life Napoleon was born in Ajaccio, Corsica, on August 15, 1769, to Carlo Buonaparte, a lawyer and political opportunist, and his wife Marie-Letizia. The Buonapartes were a wealthy family from the Corsican nobility, although when compared to the great aristocracies of France, Napoleons kin were poor. Napoleon entered the military academy at Brienne in 1779. He moved to the Parisian École Royale Militaire in 1784 and graduated a year later as a second lieutenant in the artillery. Spurred on by his fathers death in February 1785, the future emperor had completed in one year a course that often took three. Early Career Despite being posted on the French mainland, Napoleon was able to spend much of the next eight years in Corsica thanks to his ferocious letter writing and rule-bending, as well as the effects of the French Revolution (which led to the French Revolutionary Wars) and sheer good luck. There he played an active part in political and military matters, initially supporting the Corsican rebel Pasquale Paoli, a former patron of Carlo Buonaparte. Military promotion also followed, but Napoleon became opposed to Paoli and when civil war erupted in 1793 the Buonapartes fled to France, where they adopted the French version of their name: Bonaparte. The French Revolution had decimated the republics officer class and favored individuals could achieve swift promotion, but Napoleons fortunes rose and fell as one set of patrons came and went. By December 1793, Napoleon was the hero of Toulon, a general and favorite of Augustin Robespierre; shortly after the wheel of revolution turned and Napoleon was arrested for treason. Tremendous political flexibility saved him and the patronage of Vicomte Paul de Barras, soon to be one of Frances three Directors, followed. Napoleon became a hero again in 1795, defending the government from angry counter-revolutionary forces; Baras rewarded Napoleon by promoting him to high military office, a position with access to the political spine of France. Napoleon swiftly grew into one of the countrys most respected military authorities, largely by never keeping his opinions to himself, and he married Josephine de Beauharnais in 1796. Rise to Power In 1796, France attacked Austria. Napoleon was given command of the Army of Italy, whereupon he welded a young, starving and disgruntled army into a force which won victory after victory against theoretically stronger Austrian opponents. Napoleon returned to France in 1797 as the nations brightest star, having fully emerged from the need for a patron. Ever a great self-publicist, he maintained the profile of a political independent, thanks partly to the newspapers he now ran. In May 1798, Napoleon left for a campaign in Egypt and Syria, prompted by his desire for fresh victories, the French need to threaten Britains empire in India and the Directorys concerns that their famous general might seize power. The Egyptian campaign was a military failure (although it had a great cultural impact) and a change of government in France caused Bonaparte to leave- some might say abandon- his army and return in the August 1799. Shortly after he took part in the Brumaire coup of November 1799, finishing as a member of the Consulate, Frances new ruling triumvirate. First Consul The transfer of power might not have been smooth, owing much to luck and apathy, but Napoleons great political skill was clear; by February 1800, he was established as the First Consul, a practical dictatorship with a constitution wrapped firmly around him. However, France was still at war with her fellows in Europe and Napoleon set out to beat them. He did so within a year, although the key triumph, the Battle of Marengo, fought in June 1800, was won by the French General Desaix. From Reformer to Emperor Having concluded treaties that left Europe at peace, Bonaparte began working on France, reforming the economy, legal system (the famous and enduring Code Napoleon), church, military, education, and government. He studied and commented on minute details, often while traveling with the army, and the reforms continued for most of his rule. Bonaparte exhibited skill as both legislator and statesmen. Napoleons popularity remained high, helped by his mastery of propaganda but also genuine national support, and he was elected Consulate for life by the French people in 1802 and Emperor of France in 1804, a title which he worked hard to maintain and glorify. Initiatives like the Concordat with the Church and the Code helped secure his status. Return to War Europe was not at peace for long. Napoleons fame, ambitions, and character were based on conquest, making it almost inevitable that his reorganized Grande Armà ©e would fight further wars. However, other European countries also sought conflict, for not only did they distrust and fear Napoleon, but they also retained their hostility toward revolutionary France. For the next eight years, Napoleon dominated Europe, fighting and defeating a range of alliances involving combinations of Austria, Britain, Russia, and Prussia. Sometimes his victories were crushing- such as Austerlitz in 1805, often cited as the greatest military victory ever- and at other times, he was either very lucky, fought almost to a standstill, or both. Napoleon forged new states in Europe, including the German Confederation- built from the ruins of the Holy Roman Empire- and the Duchy of Warsaw, while also installing his family and favorites in positions of great power. The reforms continued and Napoleon had an ever-increasing effect on culture and technology, becoming a patron of both the arts and sciences while stimulating creative responses across Europe. Disaster in Russia The Napoleonic Empire may have shown signs of decline by 1811, including a downturn in diplomatic fortunes and continuing failure in Spain, but such matters were overshadowed by what happened next. In  1812 Napoleon went to war with Russia, assembling a force of over 400,000 soldiers, accompanied by the same number of followers and support. Such an army was almost impossible to feed or adequately control and the Russians repeatedly retreated, destroying the local resources and separating Napoleons army from its supplies. Napoleon continually dithered, eventually reaching Moscow on Sept. 8, 1812, after the Battle of Borodino, a bludgeoning conflict where over 80,000 soldiers died. However, the Russians refused to surrender, instead torching Moscow and forcing Napoleon into a long retreat back to friendly territory. The Grande Armà ©e was assailed by starvation, extremes of weather and terrifying Russian partisans throughout, and by the end of 1812 only 10,000 soldiers were able to fight. Many of the rest had died in horrible conditions, with the camps followers faring even worse. A coup had been attempted in Napoleons absence from France and his enemies in Europe were reinvigorated, forming a grand alliance intent on removing him. Vast numbers of enemy soldiers advanced across Europe toward France, overturning the states Bonaparte had created. The combined forces of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and others just used a simple plan, retreating from the emperor himself and advancing again when he moved to face the next threat. Abdication Throughout 1813 and into 1814 the pressure grew on Napoleon; not only were his enemies grinding his forces down and approaching Paris, but the British had fought out of Spain and into France, the Grande Armà ©es Marshalls were underperforming and Bonaparte had lost the French publics support. Nevertheless, for the first half of 1814 Napoleon exhibited the military genius of his youth, but it was a war he couldnt win alone. On March 30, 1814, Paris surrendered to allied forces without a fight and, facing massive betrayal and impossible military odds, Napoleon abdicated as Emperor of France; he was exiled to the Island of Elba. Second Exile and Death Napoleon made a sensational  return to power in 1815. Traveling to France in secret, he attracted vast support and reclaimed his imperial throne, as well as reorganizing the army and government. After a series of initial engagements, Napoleon was narrowly defeated in one of historys greatest battles: Waterloo. This final adventure had occurred in less than 100 days, closing with Napoleons second abdication on June 25, 1815, whereupon British forces forced him into further exile. Housed on St. Helena, a small rocky island well away from Europe in the South Atlantic Ocean, Napoleons health and character fluctuated; he died within six years, on May 5, 1821, at age 51. Legacy Napoleon helped perpetuate a state of European-wide warfare that lasted for 20 years. Few individuals have ever had such a huge effect on the world, on economics, politics, technology, culture, and society. Napoleon may not have been a general of utter genius, but he was very good; he may not have been the best politician of his age, but he was often superb; he may not have been a perfect legislator, but his contributions were hugely important. Napoleon used his talents- through luck, talent, or force of will- to rise from chaos and then build, lead, and spectacularly destroy an empire before doing it all again in a tiny microcosm one year later. Whether a hero or tyrant, the reverberations were felt across Europe for a century. Sources I, Napoleon. â€Å"Description of Egypt. Second Edition. Antiquities, Volume One (Plates).†Ã‚  WDL RSS, Detroit Publishing Company, 1 Jan. 1970.â€Å"16 Most Remarkable Napoleon Bonaparte Quotes.†Ã‚  Goalcast, Goalcast, 6 Dec. 2018.Editors, History.com. â€Å"Napoleon Bonaparte.†Ã‚  History.com, AE Television Networks, 9 Nov. 2009.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Solubility Product Constants at 25 Degrees Celsius

Solubility Product Constants at 25 Degrees Celsius The solubility product works as follows: In a water solution at equilibrium with a slightly soluble ionic compound, the product of the concentration of the ions, raised to the power of its coefficient in the solubility equation, is a constant. The solubility constant, Ksp, has a fixed value at a given temperature and is independent of the concentration of the individual ions. Here are values of Ksp for several slightly soluble ionic solids: Actetates AgC2H3O2 2 x 10-3 Bromides AgBr 5 x 10-13PbBr2 5 x 10-6 Carbonates BaCO3 2 x 10-9CaCO3 5 x 10-9MgCO3 2 x 10-8 Chlorides AgCl 1.6 x 10-10Hg2Cl2 1 x 10-18PbCl2 1.7 x 10-5 Chromates Ag2CrO4 2 x 10-12BaCrO4 2 x 10-10PbCrO4 1 x 10-16SrCrO4 4 x 10-5 Fluorides BaF2 2 x 10-6CaF2 2 x 10-10PbF2 4 x 10-8 Hydroxides Al(OH)3 5 x 10-33Cr(OH)3 4 x 10-38Fe(OH)2 1 x 10-15Fe(OH)3 5 x 10-38Mg(OH)2 1 x 10-11Zn(OH)2 5 x 10-17 Iodides AgI 1 x 10-16PbI2 1 x 10-8 Sulfates BaSO4 1.4 x 10-9CaSO4 3 x 10-5PbSO4 1 x 10-8 Sulfides Ag2S 1 x 10-49CdS 1 x 10-26CoS 1 x 10-20CuS 1 x 10-35FeS 1 x 10-17HgS 1 x 10-52MnS 1 x 10-15NiS 1 x 10-19PbS 1 x 10-27ZnS 1 x 10-20